- TeX is of course the premier system for typesetting mathematics and other technical information. I personally use the variant LaTeX. TeX distributions include TeXLive and MiKTeX (Win). Additional packages for TeX can be obtained on CTAN. I use the LaTeX class beamer with the font package arev for presentations.
- LaTeX source editors: Kile for KDE, TeXMaker (multi-platform), AmyEdit, LEd (Win), WinShell (Win), and TeXnic Center (Win). Emacs and vim also have LaTeX modes.
- Graphical editors: LyX (my customizations), TeXmacs, and EXP (Win, commercial; running EXP under Wine in Linux).
- Figures: XFig and jfig (Java, Win), asymptote, gpic (Doug West's macros for drawing graphs), gnuplot, Ipe, Vrr.
- Output: to PDF: dvips+ps2pdf, dvipdfm, or pdflatex; to HTML: HeVeA, Hermes, Tralics, TtH (free only for non-commercial use); to PNG webpages: TeXToWebPublishing, latex2slides.
- PDF utilities (very useful for preparing grant proposals for NSF Fastlane): pdftk (command-line utility to split, join, watermark, etc PDF files), GUI for PDFTK, PDFTK Builder (GUI, Win).

- Sage provides a common interface to several math programs, including Maxima, axiom, and GAP. The interface includes both a web user interface and a programming interface via Python.
- Other computer algebra systems: yacas, Maxima, and axiom. TeXmacs can be used as a graphical front-end to each of these programs. Slick!
- Octave, a program similar to Matlab.
- Optimization: COIN (pyOSI), CPLEX (commercial, pycplex), SYMPHONY, GNU Linear Programming Kit (PyGLPK and python-glpk), lp_solve (native Python interface).

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